Sunday, 6 July 2014

Literature Reviews!

Literature Reviews: Practice 1: Science Topics

Chong Yong Liang:
1) A Matter of Degrees: How does the tilt of Earth’s Axis affect seasons?
John P. Mills (2010) reported that the Sun will peak almost directly overhead, and generally speaking will be above the horizon (i.e. there will be daylight) during more of the day and because of this there will be more time for the sun to heat up the earth and thus making it even warmer (John P. Mills, 2010)

2) A Matter of Degrees: How does the tilt of Earth’s Axis affect seasons?
PBS learning media reported that the earths axis rests on 23.5 degree and that is what allows us to have different seasons and that if it is different than the seasons would change.

Johanna Lim Ziyun:
1) An investigation on the quality of water in Singapore
 We need to ensure that the countries will have abundant and clean water. The most important basis of testing and ensuring the water not being contaminated would be with the use of the WHO Guidelines of Drinking Water Quality (Fawell & Nieuwenhuijsen, 2003).

  A main concern would be the microbial growth of E. coli in the tap water. Pathogen E. coli is best known for its ability to cause intestinal diseases. Pathogenic strands of E. coli in drinking water are the most common organisms that cause highly credible gastroenteritis (Hellard et al, 2001). Organic matter in water act as a source for microbial growth, and so when water is used for public supply, disinfectants such as chlorine, hypochlorite and ozone are used to kill micro-organisms and break down organic matter (Miettinen et al, 1996).

  However, a number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water such as arsenic, disinfection by-products, fluoride, lead, pesticides and radon, which would lead to several associated health risks (Calderon, 2000). Hence, there has been growing interest in adverse health effects of water contaminated with inorganic metal contaminants, namely arsenic, chromium, lead, mercury and selenium. Research has also shown that in the case of waterborne arsenic, there is a consistent but small body of epidemiologic evidence of an association with one or more types of cancer (Cantor, 1997).

2) Industrail Biotechnology vs Chemical Industry
 Industrial biotechnology is rapidly replacing the chemical industry via biotransformation. (Faber, 1999). It has reported various pressures (from society, business or government) for the replacement of chemical based industry by biotransformation. (Scouten, 1999) Bioprocesses face the challenge of cost (Stuart et al. 2002) because capital assets associated with the existing commercial processes are high. They have suggested biocatalysis combined with novel process engineering as improved methods for the production of valuable chemical intermediates of pharmaceutical industries. (Gjalt and Gray, 2002) They have reported more efficiency of enzymatic and biotechnological fermenation for pharmaceutical intermediates than chemical synthesis. (Breuer et al, 2004). From the studies on chiral compounds of pharmaceutical industries, Pankaj and Banerjee (2005) have highlighted the certain characteristics of phamaceutical intermediates e.g. mode of production and enantioselectivity. 

  Environmental pressure and a shift towards the use of agricultural-based raw materials diverged the trends towards sustainable bio-based industrial processes (Rogers et al., 2005). Allen (2006) related the emergence of modern biotechnology with the discovery of bacteria in 1675 and proteins in 1930s.

Kok Li Ying:
1) Blood pressure in childen  
Blood pressure in children does vary in terms of how old. Blood pressure can be affected by activity and rest, body temperature, diet, emotional state, posture and medications. (Amy Walker, 2010)

2) Biodegradable vs Compostable  
When an object is biodegradable, it means that it completely breaks down and returns to nature, decomposing into elements found in nature within a reasonably short period of time after customary disposal. Unlike biodegradable objects, compostable objects turn into humus when broken down, which provides valuable nutrients to the soil. (Annabel Griffin, 2010)

Ng Wei Jie:
1) Is using machinery really good for our health when they are used to harvest and prepare our food?
Although they are effective to harvest our crops, the machines are quite dirty, and the containers are usually never washed or replaced. (Carl Procter, 2012).

2) Is using machinery really good for our health when they are used to harvest and prepare our food?
Most foods naturally contain sufficient moisture to provide bacteria with the water they need in order to grow. Where moisture has been deliberately removed (e.g. in dehydrated foods such as milk powder, soup mixes, etc.), then bacteria will not grow whilst the food remains dry. (Sarah Wilmcow, n.d.)

Wednesday, 2 July 2014

Generating Research Questions

Generating Research Questions:

Chong Yong Liang:

Johanna Lim Ziyun:

Kok Li Ying:

Ng Wei Jie: 

Tuesday, 1 July 2014

Essential Questions

1) What is Science?
Science is basically a topic where we are able to understand the history of our natural world, how the natural world works, with observable physical evidence as the basis of that understanding. 

It is achieved through experiments to stimulate natural processes under controlled conditions.

2) Scientific Methods
The scientific method is a process for experimentation that is used to explore observations and answer questions. Scientists use the scientific method to search for cause and effect relationships in nature. In other words, they design an experiment so that changes to one item cause something else to vary in a predictable way.

Just as it does for a professional scientist, the scientific method will help you to focus your science fair project question, construct a hypothesis, design, execute, and evaluate your experiment.

  1. Objective observation: Measurement and data (possibly although not necessarily using mathematics as a tool)
  2. Evidence
  3. Experiment and/or observation as benchmarks for testing hypotheses
  4. Induction: reasoning to establish general rules or conclusions drawn from facts or examples
  5. Repetition
  6. Critical analysis
  7. Verification and testing: critical exposure to scrutiny, peer review and assessment
  8. Ask questions
  9. Propose a hypothesis 

Introduction to ourselves!

Hey there!
  We are Group A. Today, we will be introducing ourselves. The topic that we will be doing is 'The development of an aquaponics system (inclusive of the Arduino that we will use to automate the system)
 Anyway, here are our roles:

1) Johanna Lim Ziyun, Project Manager
2) Chong Yong Liang, Multi-media Manager
3) Kok Li Ying, Research Specialist 
4) Ng Wei Jie, Communications Manager

Front row: Kok Li Ying (Research Specialist), Johanna Lim Ziyun (Project Manager)
Back row: Ng Wei Jie (Communications Manager), Chong Yong Liang (Multi-media Manager)

More about ourselves

Johanna Lim Ziyun (Project Manager)

Hey! I am Johanna Lim Ziyun, most people just call me 'Jo' for short. Anyway, I like pie (all three kinds of it although one is spelt as pi). It just seems nice. I am also a transformers fan, especially the decepticons and I also like Pokemon a lot, since I was young. I sort of grew up with it, I have the plush toys, Pokemon houses, cards, cracks, figurines, aeroplanes and even the 'vending machines'! Other than that, I aspire to be a lawyer or a politician as they both do exciting things and fight for justice. I have also been to the United States of America and have gotten many heartfelt memories from there. They have made me want to achieve more to life, to be the very best, like no one ever was. (especially good results)

Chong Yong Liang (Multi-media Manager)

I am Chong Yong Liang. I am usually not this formal, and often say "yo" instead of hi and I really think Johanna is too formal. Anyway you can see me holding my nerf elite sniper and I usually play this with my brother to destress, my mother says it is too violent but I think it is better than playing digital games. I like games that make you consider tactics and that you cannot win with just brute force. Also, I hate carrying around dead weight, basically doing a project while someone slacks.

Kok Li Ying (Research Specialist)

(I'm on the right^^)

Hi there! I am Kok Li Ying. I'm a 100% K-pop fan, and loves to watch Running Man, a Korean variety show. I love music, as it makes me feel relaxed. I have a love for fried chicken and chocolate too, but even though I love to eat, I will forever stay as skinny as how I am now. When I grow up, I want to be a singer (quite impossible) or a teacher. I may also consider being a policewoman or any IT . But then, I'm not really into planning my future now. My hobbies are singing, listening to music, reading and of course watching shows. I will always do my best to achieve my goals - especially to get good results. 

Ng Wei Jie (Communications Manager)

Welcome to our ISS page. I'm Ng Wei Jie. Most people think I'm too formal, but I find myself just fine around the right people. I'm those kind of people where they get angry too easily, and I'm not those who can cool down easily. You may call me a slacker, because I don't do my homework as soon as possible, but wait until the last moment. Other than that, I'm also that kind of person who is really weary of our surroundings, because I've been lied too many times in the past, and I do not want to go through that ever again, although I can partially sense when people are lying. But then again, I'm a really kind person if you didn't do anything against me. Besides the point, I hope you manage to understand our project (If you didn't just accidentally enter this website). Have a good day ahead of you.